Tag Archives: Brigham Young

The Brigham Young Monument (Pioneer Monument)

Published / by Seth Noon / Leave a Comment

Write-up by: Seth Noon

Placed By: It was originally unveiled in Chicago at the 1893 World’s Fair, created by Cyrus Edwin Dallin and commissioned by Wilford Woodruff. Shortly after that, it was moved to Salt Lake City, still unfinished, under the orders of Wilford Woodruff.

The GPS coordinates of the Brigham Young Monument.

40°46’10.4″N 111°53’27.9″W

40.769560, -111.891090

Historical Marker text (1)

The Names of the Pioneers Who Arrived in this Valley, July 24, 1847,

* Signifies Those Now Living. The Unmarked Ones Are All Deceased

Column One: Brigham Young • Clara Decker Young • Heber C. Kimball • Ellen S. Kimball • * Wilford Woodruff • George A. Smith • Amasa M. Lyman • Ezra T. Benson • Erastus Snow • Shadrach Roundy • Albert P. Rockwood • John Pack • Albert Carrington • Orrin P. Rockwell • William Clayton • Thomas Bullock • John S. Fowler • Jacob Burnham • * Joseph Egbert • John M. Freeman • Marcus B. Thorp • * George Wardle • Thomas Grover • Barnabus L. Adams

Column Two: Roswell Stevens • Sterling Driggs • * George W. Brown • Jesse c. Little • Phineas H. Young • John W. Green • Thomas Tanner • Addison Everett • Truman O. Angell • Lorenzo D. Young • Harriet Page Young • * Isaac Perry Decker • * Lorenzo Sobieski • Young • John Holman • Edmund Ellsworth • Alvarus Hanks • George R. Grant • Millen Atwood • Samuel Fox • Tunis Rappleyee • Eli H. Pierce • William Dykes • Jacob Weiler * Steven H. Goddard • Burr Frost

Column Three: Tarelton Lewis • Henry G. Sherwood • Zebedee Coltrin • Sylvester H. Earl • John Dixon • Samuel H. Marble • George Scholes • William Henrie • William A. Empey • * Charles Shumway • * Andrew Shumway • Thomas Woolsey • Chauncey Loveland • James Craig • William Wordsworth • * William P. Vance • Simeon Howd • Seeley Owen • James Case • Artemas Johnson • * William C.A. Smoot • * Benjamin Dewey • William Carter • Franklin G. Losee • Datus Ensign

Column Four: Franklin B. Stewart • Monroe Frink • Eric Clines • * Ozro Eastman • Seth Taft * Horace T. Thornton • Horace K. Whitney • Orson K. Whitney • * Stephen Kelsey • John S. Eldredge • Charles D. Barnum • Alma L. Williams • Rufus Allen • Robert T. Thomas • James W. Stewart • Elijah Newman • * Levi N. Kendall • Francis Boggs • David Grant • Howard Egan • William A. King • * Thomas B. Cloward • Hosea Cushing • Robert Byard • George Billings

Column Five: Edson Whipple • Philo Johnson • Appleton M. Harmon • Carlos Murray • Nathaniel T. Brown • Jackson R. Redden • Francis M. Pomeroy • * Aaron F. Farr • Nathaniel Fairbanks • John S. Higbee • John Wheeler • Soloman Chamberlain • * Conrad Kleinman • Jospeh Rooker • Perry Fitzgerald • John H. Tippetts • James Davenport • * Henson Walker • Benjamin Rolfe • Norton Jacob • * Charles A. Harper • Stephen Markham • * George Woodward • Lewis Barney • George Mills

Column Six: Andrew Gibbons • Joseph Hancock • * John W. Norton • Hans C. Hanson • Levi Jackman • * Lyman Curtis • John Brown • David Powers • Matthew Ivory • Jospeh Matthews • * John S. Gleason • Gilberd Summe • Charles Burke • Alexander P. Chessley • Rodney Badger • * Norman Taylor • Briant Stringam • Orson Pratt • Willart Richards • Joseph S. Scofield • Luke Johnson {Colored Servants: * Green Flake • Hark Lay • Oscar Crosby}

Historical Marker Transcript Text (2)

Photo of one of the plaques on the monument, signifying its dedication of the monument to Brigham Young and the original Pioneers. Taken 1940, March 16th. (1)

Extended Research

The Brigham Young Monument that is in downtown Salt Lake City has a fascinating and mildly dramatic past, filled with petty propaganda and annoyed citizens. The statue is 10 feet tall and was cut in stone but cast in bronze. It was originally designed to be cut with stone, with a 35-foot wide, 25-foot-tall base, but due to a combination of size and location, the 35-foot base was shortened significantly. It used to stand at the center of the intersection formed by Main Street and South Temple but was moved 82 feet north onto Temple Square in 1993. While the monument is often associated with Salt Lake City because it is of Brigham Young, and currently resides in Salt Lake City, the statue was actually completed in and originated from Chicago.

Cyrus Edward Dallin sculpted the now famous marble bust of Brigham Young and unveiled it in Chicago at the 1893 world’s fair. The LDS church had commissioned Dallin previously to create a statue of the angel Moroni (a Book of Mormon prophet) which now stands atop the Salt Lake City Temple. Dallin also sculpted busts of the first presidents of the LDS church, including Wilford Woodruff, who commissioned Dallin to design and sculpt a statue of Brigham Young. However due to a lack of funds, the statue remained unfinished. When the LDS church sought to complete the monument by ignoring Dallin’s initial vision, Dallin wrote to the church, saying “while I am most heartily in sympathy with your wishes and desires, I cannot allow these changes in my design. To put the single figure of President Young upon a large unadorned pedestal, as you design, would be manifestly inappropriate and would not only hurt me, but might seriously endanger the final completion” (3). The LDS church ignored Dallin’s opinions and even stopped paying him what they owed. Dallin wrote the church another letter in response to the Salt Lake City unveiling, explaining that “since the unveiling of the Brigham Young Statue in July 1897, (against my protestation) the monthly payments due me have ceased (in fact before then) and I wish to call your attention to the fact that you have broken your contract with me. It is now six months since I received the last word from you…. I am a poor man and am dependent on my work for my livelihood” (3). Dallin returned to Salt Lake City, and through his own effort, and after some threats, the church paid him to continue to work on the monument’s base.

Unveiling of the Brigham Young Monument in Salt Lake City (2)

The statue’s base was officially completed in 1900, three years after being unveiled in Salt Lake City, and seven years after being unveiled in Chicago. Dallin was still not satisfied with his work due to the changes that were forced upon it despite his contract. He made one last attempt to influence the design of the monument but was once again rebuffed. The monument was temporarily located on the Southeast corner of Temple Square. In 1900 the monument was moved to the center of the intersection of South Temple and Main Street. This was done so that it was in a more open and public area, with lots of traffic so that it could be viewed without obstruction.

Below is an image depicting where the monument was moved to and stayed for 93 years. Some people, however, lobbied for its relocation as time progressed.  Its location was originally not of concern or controversy because traffic mostly consisted of people, carriages, wagons and people on horseback. They did not foresee how technology would advance, and as the 20th century progressed, the car became more popular and common. The intersection began to service thousands of cars daily, and became an obstacle to drivers, especially those trying to make a left turn. As the growth of the city persisted, and cars became more prevalent, accidents rose and led to more strife aimed towards the monument. However, many different groups had different opinions and ideas as to how to remedy the situation.

In 1929, the Salt Lake City Rotary Club requested the monument’s removal from the intersection; Governor George H. Dern wanted to move it to Capitol Hill and surround it with flowers. The Brigham Young Family Association and the Daughters of Utah Pioneers each had different ideas, and so both met separately to discuss the monument. The Brigham Young Family Association voted to “vigorously oppose” the relocation, and Daughters of Utah Pioneers “unanimously protested” the relocation. Eventually the debate was settled when “George P. Parker, state attorney general . . . concluded that the site had been dedicated for the monument and it could not be legally moved without a majority vote of the people” (3). The debate rested until 1951, when Salt Lake City’s Traffic Commission made the mistake of trying to move the monument, which was met with an even more intense opposition.

Painting of Brigham Young Monument (4)

The mayor of Salt Lake City at the time, Earl J. Glade, said the monument was “a large part of the trademark” of the city, and that if “you take away that monument out of the intersection, and you take away a large part of Salt Lake City.” (3) The president of the American Pioneer Trails Association, Howard R. Driggs, said “It’s absurd—plain ridiculous, to think of moving the Brigham Young Monument.” (3) The president of the National Sons of Utah Pioneers, Fred E. Curtis, said “We feel they already have destroyed too much of pioneer history in this city and state”. (3) The Church also made its opinion known through the LDS-owned Deseret News, which had said in an editorial about the monument’s relocation, “one of the most shocking notions that has ever been born of an excess of zeal is the shortsighted proposal which has been informally launched by some of the members of Salt Lake City’s Advisory Traffic Commission.” (3) The Traffic Commission reversed course, and they didn’t dare to try and move it again. In 1955, there was a compromise, and 14 feet was shaved off the base of the statue and paved around it. This made traffic better and did not anger the LDS church or historical societies like the Daughters of Utah Pioneers.

In 1973, the Environmental Protection Agency mandated that Salt Lake City reduce pollution and congestion in downtown. Among the plans for improving congestion and pollution was one to renovate main street and make it more friendly to pedestrians. Renovating and expanding the base around the monument was a part of this effort. The monument had seen its base get significantly increased. And under this new effort by the city, fountains were installed on the east and west sides of the monument, extending out completely as to not allow through traffic, going north and south. These additions were complete by 1975 but were short lived. This in theory would reduce traffic in the region, but it did not, as more businesses moved into the newly revitalized main street.

Brigham Young Statue with added fountains (5)

Because the statue became more accessible, another controversy over the statue began. The wide base with fountains attracted people, and people noticed that there was a plaque on the pedestal that listed the names of the original pioneers. Three of the names however, were labeled as “colored servants.” This sparked a small debate over the language, with some like Salt Lake City Commissioner Stephen M. Harmsen, calling it “an embarrassment to our city” in a city council meeting in April of 1975. Others like Bertha Udell, argued that changing the language would be an attempt at trying to rewrite/hide the true history of the pioneers. The monument serves to preserve history and help us remember it, and while it was intended to remember Brigham Young and the Pioneers, it also preserves the way in which these men were seen and labeled. They were not seen as pioneers and instead called servants. Hark Lay was one of the three enslaved men listed above. He was freed after being taken to California and changed his name to Hark Wales, yet the monument remembered him by his former enslaver’s last name instead of his own. The same was true for Oscar Smith who was included on the monument as Oscar Crosby, the surname of his enslaver. Green Flake was the third enslaved man listed on the monument. Flake continued to use his enslaver’s last name after Brigham Young freed him in 1852. The monument preserved more than just Brigham Young’s legacy, it also preserved the racism that was present in Utah in the 19th century.

            In 1978, the Salt Lake Chamber of Commerce proposed relocating the Monument from its spot at the intersection to the front of the temple, along Main Street, with a park being built around it. Some citizens supported the move, citing traffic and pollution as concerns. Others were in favor of the move, simply because the statue had Brigham’s hand pointing to Zions bank and his back towards the Temple. A jingle of unknown origin emerged amongst the locals: “There stands Brigham High on his perch, With his hand to the bank and his back to the church.” (3) There were also many citizens who opposed it because moving the statue would involve destroying the $130,000 base that had been constructed only 3 years prior. The debate raged on, with the church itself largely conflicted: some wanted the statue to be in front of the temple, and some members of the church did not want the view of the temple to be obstructed and suggested that it be moved somewhere else within Temple Square. Historical Societies like the Brigham Young Family Association opposed the move, because they were not consulted. Some citizens favored the idea of moving the statue to a prestigious location like Capitol Hill, so they could save face, and not appear to just be moving the monument because it was in the way. The matter of the statue’s location became ever more public with citizens proposing ideas on how to remedy the controversy. News reporters asked citizens what they thought: One man suggested mounting the monument on wheels so it could be moved about without a fuss. Another suggested relocating it to the corner of the intersection and making Brigham’s arms moveable so he could direct traffic”. (3) The City ended up voting to not move the statue as it did not want to “sacrifice” the monument for the sake of easing traffic. In 1980, the city was able to quietly remove the fountains and massive base they had added in 1975, and in 1992, Salt Lake City elected Deedee Corradini as Mayor and she initiated change.

Deedee Corradini was by most accounts a very competent mayor: she balanced the city’s budget, helped plan the Ball Park stadium downtown, as well became a champion of Trax and the 2002 Olympics. She was presented with an Olympic flag, the first female mayor to receive that honor, and she was also the first female elected mayor of Salt Lake City. When she took office, she began to quietly plan the movement of the Brigham Young Monument. Corradini and the LDS church began talks on where to move the monument in late 1992. The Brigham Young Family Association were eventually brought into the talks as well, ensuring all three major parties had input on the relocation of the monument. They used common sense, and moved the statue 82 feet north, so that it was no longer in the street, and instead along the sidewalk. Former Mayor Ted Wilson who was involved in the 1978 debate over the monument said “I think [moving the statue eighty-two feet north] was a brilliant solution.”(3) Carl Kates, a Deseret News editorial writer, said this after the monument had been taken down to be refurnished and then relocated: “No public protest ensued; indeed, almost nobody cared.” (3)

The Brigham Young Monument appears to be a relatively normal statue, but its history is anything but normal. It is gloriously abstract, from its construction to its endless and needlessly heated debates about its location in the middle of two prominent streets in downtown Salt Lake City. The statue may look like a statue to most, but to a very influential and important few it was coveted and treated as almost sacred as evident by the actions of several governors, mayors, LDS presidents, and groups like the Brigham Young Family Association. Its present location is a compromise of the desires of all the parties involved. The monument was moved onto Temple Square, pleasing the church; it was out of the street, pleasing the city; and it was still in the center of downtown, pleasing the Brigham Young Family Association. Just as the statue commemorates and reifies stories of enslaved and free pioneers, its stillness hides the tensions of its movement. The most accurate yet brief statement about the monument is that it took 93 years to move it 82 feet and out of a street.

For Further Reference

Photos and images

(1) Content pulled from the University of Utah’s J. Willard Marriot Digital Library

(2) Content pulled from the Brigham young University Scholars Archive

(3) Hunter, J. Michael. “The Monument to Brigham Young and the Pioneers: One Hundred Years of Controversy.” Utah Historical Quarterly, Volume 68, Number 4, (2000).

(4) Painting by the Deseret Book Company

(5) picture provided is a Plastichrome by Colorpicture, postcard

(6) Photo by Lindsay Aikman/Michael Priest Photography

(7) Photo taken by Rick Egan, of AP Photo/The Salt Lake Tribune.

Primary Sources

Parry, Joseph Hyrum. The “Mormon” Metropolis. an Illustrated Guide to Salt Lake City and Its Environs, Containing Illustrations and Descriptions of Principal Places of Interest to Tourists. Also Interesting Information and Historical Data with Regard to Utah and Its People. Salt Lake City: J.H. Parry & Co., 1887.

“Round-up: 1897-07-09: Brigham Young Monument.” Utah Digital Newspapers. Accessed February 2, 2022. https://newspapers.lib.utah.edu/details?id=9335395.

Secondary Sources

Hunter, J. Michael. “The Monument to Brigham Young and the Pioneers: One Hundred Years of Controversy.” Utah Historical Quarterly, Volume 68, Number 4, (2000).

Ensign Peak Park

Published / by Grace Longoria / Leave a Comment

Grace Longoria

Place by: Mutual Improvement Association; Utah Pioneer Trails and Landmarks Association GPS Coordinates: 40° 47.664′ N, 111° 53.442′ W.

Historical Marker Text 1:

Indian hunters probably used Ensign Peak as a vantage point to scout for prey. Many camped near the Warm Springs west of here, at the base of the mountain. The Salt Lake Valley was a meeting place and campsite for several bands which were composed of Shoshoni- and Ure-speaking Indians. These Indian people traveled in small, extended-family groups to hunt, fish, and gather berries, insects, roots, and seeds. One Chief, Little Soldier, was born in the Red Butte foothills southeast of here; Wanship, another leading Chief, made his headquarters in the Salt Lake Valley.

Historical Marker Text 2:

In 1776 the first non-native explorers entered Utah. They were led by Franciscan Fathers, Francisco Antanazio Domínguez and Silvestre Vélez de Escalante, who hoped to establish a new trail from New Mexico to their California missions. After visiting the Ute bands living near Utah Lake, the padres returned to New Mexico. They did not reach the Salt Lake Valley. Forty-five years later, traders and mountain men entered this region in search of animal pelts. They opened trails and charted rivers and mountain passes.  Among them were Jim Bridger, Miles Goodyear, Peter Skene Ogden, Erienne Provost, Jedediah Smith, Joseph R. Walker, and John H. Weber. John C. Frémont’s U.S. Army expeditions confirmed that the interior of the Intermountain West was a “Great Basin” with no outlet to the sea.

Historical Marker Text 3:

The first settlers in the Salt Lake Valley were members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, sometimes called Mormons because of their belief in the Book of Mormon. They had suffered persecution in New York, Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. After a mob killed their church founder, Joseph Smith, in 1844, most church members followed the leadership of Brigham Young and the Council of the Twelve Apostles. Beginning in February 1846, many Latter-day Saints moved from Nauvoo, Illinois, to a temporary camp in eastern Nebraska, which was called Winter Quarters. Young led an advanced party of 143 men, three women, and two children, which set out for the Rocky Mountains in April 1847. Traveling parallel to the Oregon Trail along the Platte and North Platte Rivers to Fort Laramie, they proceeded on the Oregon Trail to Fort Bridger, and from there, followed the route taken by the ill-fated Donner-Reed pioneers in 1846. Brigham Young, sick with mountain fever, was among the last of the party to enter the Salt Lake Valley where he arrived on July 24, 1847. Many pioneer companies reached the valley over the next few years. Before the transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869, some eighty thousand emigrants traveled to Utah using various conveyances, including ox teams and handcarts.

Historical Marker Text 4:

From Ensign Peak the pioneer leaders laid plans for Salt Lake City. They envisioned a prospering community of wide streets, farms, homes, schools, shops, churches, and a temple. George A. Smith reported chatting before leaving Nauvoo, Illinois, for the Mormon trek west; Brigham Young.” had a vision of Joseph Smith who showed him the mountain that we now call Ensign Peak and there was an ensign that fell upon that peak. Joseph said Build under the point where the colors fall, and you will prosper and have peace. Upon viewing the valley and Ensign Peak, Brigham Young declared, “This is the Place.” The peak became sacred to many as a place for meditation, Prior to completion of the temple, religious ordinances were performed on the peak by the pioneer settlers. Ensign Peak became a symbol of fathering; from the time the first American Indians lived in this area to the present, this valley has drawn people from all corners of the world.

Historical Marker Text 5:

A great variety of plants, ground animals, insects, and birds inhabit the slopes and valleys around Ensign Peak. Native plants include the sego lily, a spring flower that grows from a bulb. On the advice of local Indians, the pioneers dug the sego lily bulb for food. Many flowers add color to the park from early spring, through summer and fall. Even on a winter hike, birds and animals may be seen. Oak brush offers limited shade on the mountainside. Deer roam the hills. Squirrels and burrowing animals are also evident. Many birds nest and feed around the peak period along the trail and nature paths are signs that identify the native fauna and flora.

Historical Marker Text 6:

When you hike the Ensign Peak Train, you will pass several information points or stations. Vista Mound station, which lies to your left, offers an excellent view of the Salt Lake Valley. Other stations along the trail tell about the Peak’s geology, the natural history of the valley, the Great Salt Lake, and the plants and animals that are native to this area. Above the meadow, near the trail, is an amphitheater that groups may use. If you hike to the summit, you will find additional information about the history of Ensign Peak. The hillside is seeded with native grasses and flowers. Please protect these tender plants by using the designated trails. Practice safety measures as you hike and please do not leave any litter. Drinking water and restrooms are not available along the trail. The hike from here to the summit of Ensign Peak is .47 miles. The elevation increases 398 feet.

Historical Marker Text 7:

Dedicated July 26, 1996


President Gordon B. Hinckley

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

This park is the result of a public-private partnership between

Salt Lake City and Ensign Peak Foundation.

Salt Lake City

Mayor Deedee Corradini

Salt Lake City Council, and the Department of Public Services

Ensign Peak Foundation

J Malan Heslop, Michael L. Hutchings, Glen A. Lloyd, Earl Maw

Glen Saxton, Ronald W. Walker, and Kim R. Wilson, trustees.

Paul A. Hanks, Michael Glauser, and Rhees Ririe, advisors.

About the Plaza

The plaza reminds visitors of the history of Ensign Peak. It is built

with concrete aggregate similar to that used during pioneer times and

blends with the natural stone found in the area. In memory of the

nine men who hiked to the summit on July 26, 1847, nine stone seats

and nine trees encircle the plaza. The paving stones on the floor

sketch a map of the world. By standing on the approximate location

of Salt Lake City and looking through the cleft in the wall, 

the summit of Ensign Peak can be seen. The plaza is situated a symbolic

47 feet from the street, a reminder of the year, 1847.

From the summit of the peak, Brigham Young and other pioneer

leaders viewed the valley and named the peak “Ensign” after Isaiah’s

words, “And he shall set up an ensign for the nations.” (Isaiah 11:12)

Three flagpoles at the plaza provide ample opportunity to hoist our

national ensign, as well as other flags.

Historical Marker Text 8: 

This is a plaque that shows what monuments and landmarks you can see from the top of the peak.

Extra photos:

This photo is of Ensign Peak before the park was placed at the foot. 

Extended Research:

At the base of Ensign Peak is Ensign Peak Park. This park serves as a home to different flora and fauna, a place to sit at the base of the hiking trail, and a gorgeous gathering spot to admire the beauty of Ensign Peak. There are many different flowers that grow in the park, and that includes the state flower, the sego lily. This flower is important to the history of Utah because it is the flower that the members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ate when they ran out of food in the winter. The Native Americans in the area showed them that the bulb of the flower was good to eat. This prevented the members of the Church from facing starvation. This flower became a prominent feature on many LDS buildings and once the park was built, it was added there too. There are other different types of flowers and bushes that can be found at the base, and these bushes are home to birds such as quail. They like to build their nests there for safety and security from predators. There are also squirrels and even deer that like to roam the area. 

The first group of non-Native American people to come in and settle Utah and the Salt Lake Valley, was the LDS Church. They had made peace with the Native Americans in the area, but this was not until many decades after their arrival.  While they only came in to escape religious persecution, they caused havoc among the Native Americans and even massacred whole sections of tribes to cleanse the land. They committed atrocious crimes against the Native Americans in the area.  Ensign Peak is the place Brigham Young, who became the President of the LDS Church, claimed to have seen previously in a vision.It was his signal that “this is the place” to establish a new community. This place also served as a temple for the LDS Church at one point. A man by the name of Addison Pratt had been serving a mission when the members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints were forced out of Nauvoo due to religious persecution. When he came back to the states in 1849, the leaders wanted him to receive his temple rituals. There was no temple in the Salt Lake Valley at this time due to the fact that the members of the LDS Church had just arrived in the valley two years ago. The leaders decided that Ensign Peak was the best place to offer Pratt these rituals. There is no clear distiction on who first came up with the idea, but we do know tht Pratt, Young, and six of the twelve members of the Quorum of the Apostles were all there. They already considered Ensign Peak holy ground, so there was the best scenario. Pratt was ordained and given his temple rituals on the peak, and the site gained even more significance to the members of the LDS Church.

In 1908, there was a plan that was proposed to Salt Lake City government to create a park at the base of Ensign Peak and it was referred to as Ensign Peak Park. The actual peak had a lot of significance to the members of the LDS faith, and there was a desire for something more to show the significance of the peak. The plan to put in a nature park, which would allow for new flora and fauna to beautify the base and make the hike to the peak a pleasurable experience. There was also the idea that there could be a profit gained from these modifications by charging for entrance to the park and access to the peak. There were many voices that agreed with this idea including the Salt Lake Herald and Sen. Reed Smoot. It was an extremely innovative idea, but unfortunately the city did not get around to completing the plan until a few decades later in 1996.

In the twenty-first century, Ensign Peak Park commemorates a significant part of Utah’s history. It is a reminder of all the wonderful things of Utah such as the beauty of the state. It is also a reminder of the struggles and hardships that the members of LDS Church went through to escape persecution. The park is a gorgeous place to go and immerse yourself in the history of Salt Lake Valley and enjoy the natural beauty of the state.  

For Further Reference:

Primary Source

Ensign Peak P.1: Classified Photographs. J. Willard Marriott Digital Library. Utah State Historical Society. Accessed April 7, 2022. https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s6xh1krb  

 Ronald Walker, Utah Historical Quarterly 1994 – Vol LXII – No 1 – a Gauge of the Times: Historic and Prehistoric Publications. J. Willard Marriott Digital Library. J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah, 1994. https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s64m93vt/422215 

Secondary Source

Brian Cannon, The Sego Lily, Utah’s State Flower. issuu. Utah Historical Quarterly, Utah State History, November 1, 1995. https://issuu.com/utah10/docs/uhq_volume63_1995_number1/s/165473

Dennis Wright and Rebekah Westrup. Ensign Peak: Religious Studies Center. Ensign Peak | Religious Studies Center. Accessed February 5, 2022. https://rsc.byu.edu/salt-lake-city-place-which-god-prepared/ensign-peak

Jack Duffy, Ensign Peak Historical Marker. Historical Marker, May 27, 2020. https://www.hmdb.org/m.asp?m=150534

 Lee Davidson, How One Utah Hill Became a Mormon Temple — for a Day. The Salt Lake Tribune, March 31, 2015. https://archive.sltrib.com/article.php?id=2298685&itype=CMSID.

Range Plants of Utah. Sego Lily. Utah State University, 2017. https://extension.usu.edu/rangeplants/forbsherbaceous/sego-lily#:~:text=Western%20Indians%20deemed%20the%20bulb,as%20the%20Utah%20State%20Flower

Ronald Walker, Utah Historical Quarterly 1994 – Vol LXII – No 1 – a Gauge of the Times: Historic and Prehistoric Publications. J. Willard Marriott Digital Library. J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah, 1994. https://collections.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s64m93vt/422215