Erected in 1867 as a county court house. Active in construction were James Hammond, William Broad, Isaac Lee, W.C. Collaher, John Gillespie, George Atkin and john Gordon. The building was used for court house, city hall and amusement center, until 1941, when the new city hall on Main Street was completed. Later the building was turned over to the daughters of Utah pioneers for use as an amusement and meeting hall. Rock used in building was taken from settlement canyon in Tooele County.
Historical Marker Text (2):
Dedicated to the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the United States of America and sponsored by the Utah American Revolution Bicentennial Commission and Tooele City Corporation. Built in 1867 as a meeting hall, this building also served as County Courthouse and City Hall, with a jail in the rear. In 1941, the building was given to the Daughters of Utah Pioneers who have maintained it as a museum. They and Tooele City have renovated the building.
Historical Marker Text (3):
This Greek Revival temple-form building was constructed in 1867 using local stone. The belfry, added sometime after 1874, is picturesque in style and has lathe-turned posts accentuated by scroll brackets, a distinctive spindle band, and a slightly bellcast pyramid roof. The hall was built, according to a newspaper article of the time, by the citizens of Tooele “for a dancing hall, for dramatic representations and other social and intellectual purposes.” It was leased to William C. Foster and Thomas Craft but was also used for holding court and other city and country business. Live entertainment, however, proved financially unsuccessful, and by 1871 the hall was utilized primarily as a courthouse. In 1899 a new courthouse was constructed, and the building became solely the city hall. In 1942, with the construction of a new city hall, it was authorized for use as a museum by the Daughters of the Utah Pioneers. Marker placed in 1991.
The Tooele County Courthouse and City Hall was constructed in 1867 thanks to the combined efforts and planning of James Hammond, William Broad, Isaac Lee, W.C. Collaher, John Gillespie, George Atkin, and John Gordon (Atkin and Gillespie would later serve on one of Tooele City’s first city councils, see image). Using stone sourced from nearby Settlement Canyon, they constructed the only extant temple-form city hall in Utah (and the oldest known to date)¹ with the total cost for the initial construction and furnishing of the hall adding up to $600² ($10884.91 adjusted for the 2018 inflation rate).³
The hall was meant to be used as both a social and governmental space, but due to the lack money in the territory⁴, few Tooele residents were able to scrape together the necessary $400 to rent out the building. The hall’s managers soon found themselves unable to make ends meet and they were forced to use the building and its furnishings as collateral to pay off overdue rent to the city in April of 1871. From then on, it was used predominantly as the county’s city hall, jail, and courthouse⁵ and was used as such until the county built a new courthouse in 1899 and a new city hall in 1941.⁶
After city officials moved to the new city hall in 1942, they granted the Daughters of Utah Pioneers a 50-year lease on the property, which they converted into a museum of local history.⁷ An addition to the building in 1975 connected it to the adjacent Sons of Utah Pioneers Museum (formerly Carnegie library), creating what is today known as Pioneer Plaza. These two museums possess a wide array of artifacts from local history, including an entire log cabin (originally built in 1855) which occupies the lot next door to the courthouse where a fire station formerly stood.⁸
Placed by: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
Geographic Coordinates: 40°46’14” N 111°53’29” W
“The temple is used by Church members for marriages
and other sacred ordinances designed to strengthen families, both now and for
eternity. Begun in 1853, it was completed 40 years later. Granite rock used in
its construction was hauled 23 miles by ox-drawn wagons from Little Cottonwood
Canyon. The walls are nine feet thick at the ground level and narrow to six
feet thick at the top. The east center tower is 210 feet high and is topped by
the statue of an angel heralding the restoration to earth of the gospel of
Jesus Christ in the latter days.”
Four days after Brigham Young entered the Salt Lake Valley, he took members of the church’s governing Quorum of Twelve Apostles with him to a site for a new temple. The original idea for a temple block included forty acres, perfectly placed so the city would grow and develop in all directions from its central location North, South, East, and West. The location of the temple was not merely a religious center, but as Young envisioned it. It would serve as the geographic center for the entire Salt Lake Valley.
The construction of the Salt Lake Temple also parallels the events that led to the development of the territory and eventually to statehood for Utah. The Salt Lake Temple’s long forty year construction process reflects the political strain that developed between The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the U.S government.
Beginning of Construction
After the initial selection of a temple block in
1847 the actual construction of the temple began in 1852 when workers completed
a wall surrounding ten square acres, a scaled down version of the forty acres
Young originally envisioned. The groundbreaking and eventual cornerstone
ceremony took place on 6 April 1853. The temple cornerstones were cut out of
what is now known as Red Butte Canyon, located just east of the University of
Design of the temple had started long before the
actual dedication of the cornerstones. Truman O. Angell was the chief architect
on the temple under the supervision of Church leaders including, Brigham Young,
John Taylor, and Wilford Woodruff. Young
would often visit Angell and give instruction on how the temple should be
constructed but would leave the interpretation of what he said up to Angell and
the other architects. One of Young’s visits was documented as follows:
“Brigham Young drew upon a slate in the architect’s office a sketch, and said to Truman O, Angell: “there will be three towers on the east, representing the President and his two counselors; also three towers on the west representing the Presiding Bishop and his two counselors; the towers on the east, the Melchizedek Priesthood, those on the west the Aaronic Priesthood. The centre towers will be higher than those on the sides, and the west towers a little lower than those on the east end. The body of the building will be between these and pillars will be necessary to support the floors.”
The Romanesque and Gothic design can be attributed
to Brigham Young and his missions to England. Young, served missions in England
from 1839-1841 and fell in love and even obsessed over English history and
Young was especially enamored with Westminster Abbey in London. He even
purchased an architectural guide to the Abbey itself. Young
sent Angell to Europe to study English and European architecture. Angell
eventually returned with a negative attitude toward European architecture, but
he used what he learned from his trip and developed his own style. Angell, for
example, relied more on the design of the Nauvoo Temple than what he had
learned in England and Europe. Upon
returning Angell became more and more involved in the temple construction
process. Angell kept meticulous details of the dimensions of each room, as well
as the payments of each stonecutter that worked on the temple. His
journals reveal the commitment that Angell had to the construction process of the
temple. A similar devotion was found among all of the workers of the temple.
The Utah War
The construction of the temple came to a halt in
1857 when word reached Salt Lake City that the U.S military was on their way to
“subdue an alleged rebellion” in the territory of Utah. In
response the workers buried the foundation of the temple so as to keep the
sacred ground from becoming desecrated by the incoming army. Young also charged
all Latter-day Saints to evacuate the city and to be prepared to burn it to the
ground if the army invaded. Fortunately
the army marched peacefully through an abandoned city in 1858, and construction
on the temple resumed thereafter. After uncovering the buried foundation the
workers discovered that the sandstone cornerstones had cracked under the weight
of the dirt of the reburial. The workers thus knew that stronger cornerstones
needed to be found and the old sandstone cornerstones needed to be completely
Post War Construction
Heber C. Kimball, first councilor to Brigham Young, asked his fellow Saints after the discovery of the cracked sandstone: “Shall we have the Temple built of stone from Red Butte, adobes, rock or the best stone the mountains afford?” He insisted that the Latter-day Saints “build a Temple of the best materials that can be obtained in the mountains of North America.” The ‘best material’ was found in the Cottonwood canyons located nineteen miles southeast of the city center, where large caches of granite rock were located and were the perfect stone from which to build a temple. By 1860 teams were hauling large granite stones from little Cottonwood canyon to the temple block. The granite blocks were so large and heavy a team of four oxen took three to four days to travel from the canyon to the city center with one large boulder. The construction process thus took longer than expected. The first showings of the walls from the deep foundation of the temple were not seen above ground until the end of the 1867 building season.
The Transcontinental Railroad
The completion of the transcontinental railroad in
May 1869 both delayed construction on the temple and hastened its completion. Brigham
Young initially asked that all able men, even those who were working on the temple,
stop and help complete the transcontinental railroad. The railroad offered
paying jobs and proved a boost to Utah’s economy. Young
also recognized that with the development of the main rail line, smaller lines
would eventually reach the Salt Lake valley and from there they would extend
towards Little Cottonwood Canyon where large amounts of granite could be loaded
and brought back to the temple block. The first railroad branches reached
Cottonwood canyon in 1873.
After the passing of Brigham Young in 1877, his
successors oversaw the slow pace of temple construction. By the time Wilford
Woodruff became Church president in 1887, the temple walls were still being
built. By 1892 the three spires on the West and the East ends of the temple
were completed and the famous golden statue of the Angel Moroni was set in
place. The Angel Moroni is an important figure in Mormonism, believed by
members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, to be the messenger
sent from God to the faiths founder, Joseph Smith to direct him where to find
the golden plates, which Smith then claimed to translate into the Book of
Mormon.The angel Moroni statue measures twelve and a half feet high,
and was designed and sculpted by C.E. Dallin.
Following the addition of the angel, Woodruff
announced that the interior of the temple would be completed in one year’s
time. The dedication date for the completed structure was then set for the 6th
of April 1893, making it forty years to the day of the original cornerstone
dedication in 1853.
The Dedication, April 6th
Just as promised, the first dedicatory session of the Salt Lake Temple started on Wednesday, 6 April 1893. The interior paint of the temple must have still been drying when the first session began, given that the interior workers finished the day before the dedication. The first session was attended by the First Presidency, Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, and other authorities of the Church and their families. Within the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints all temple dedications involve a prayer to sanctify and protect the temple. After the dedicatory prayer the temple becomes operational for religious ceremonies and practices only for members of the faith who meet given requirements.
The gothic look of the Salt Lake temple has made it one of the most unique and noticeable buildings in the city and state. Millions of people flock to Temple Square each year to see the temple for themselves. Temple architects wanted to make sure that visitors recognized that the temple was a different kind of building. The exterior was to be “widely different” from “cathedral, tabernacle, mosque or synagogue.”
On the walls of the temple there are found carvings of the earth, moon, sun, stars, and clouds, all designed to remind worshipers that the work that goes on inside the temple is to lift thoughts and actions away from the world and towards deity. Also the constellation of Ursa Major is found on the West side on the center spire. The symbolism behind the constellation most commonly found in the Northern Hemisphere is meant to suggest to those that might have lost their way that the temple is a constant guiding beacon just like Ursa Major. An “All seeing eye” and an opened scroll with the statement “I am Alpha and Omega” along with another carving of hands grasped together in fellowship are also found on the exterior walls of the temple, all meant to symbolize the nature of the worship performed within the walls. All of these carvings were handmade out of granite stone and placed on the exterior of the temple. The entirety of the Temple building is symbolic of a fortress ready to defend those who enter into the building – a fortress to protect the beliefs and to help them separate themselves from the busy city. The temple block also serves as another barrier from the world.
The Salt Lake Temple is a religious building completed
in the 19th century and still used today in the 21st century. Weddings and
other sacred rituals are performed inside to help members of the faith to
remember their God and how to return back to his presence. Being able to go
inside is a sacred responsibility that members of the Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints are asked to take seriously. Visitors are welcome to visit
and learn more about the temple at the visitor centers located on Temple
 Thomas Stevens, “The Union Pacific Railroad and the Mormon Church,
1868-1871: An in Depth Study of the Financial Aspects of Brigham Young’s
Grading Contract and its Ultimate Settlement” (MA Thes., Brigham Young
University, 1972), 102-106.
Brown, Samuel. “A Sacred Code: Mormon Temple
Dedication Prayers, 1836-2000.” Journal of Mormon History 32, no. 2
(Summer 2006): 173-196.
Hamilton, Charles Mark. 1979. “The Salt Lake Temple: An Architectural
Monograph.” PhD diss., Ohio State University, 1979.
Oman, Richard G. “Exterior Symbolism of the
Salt Lake Temple: Reflecting the Faith That Called the Place into Being.” BYU
Studies Quarterly: Vol. 36: Iss.
4, Article 2 (1996): 7-68.
Poll, Richard D, and William P. MacKinnon.
“Causes of the Utah War Reconsidered.” Journal of Mormon History
20, no. 2 (1994): 16-44.
Richards, Paul C. “The Salt Lake Temple
Infrastructure: Studying It Out in Their Minds.” In BYU Studies
Quarterly 36, no 2 (1996): 203-221.
Stevens, Thomas M. “The Union Pacific Railroad and the Mormon Church, 1868-1871: An in
Depth Study of the Financial Aspects of Brigham Young’s Grading Contract and
Its Ultimate Settlement.” MA Thesis., Brigham Young University, 1972.
Talmage, James E. The House of the Lord: A Study
of Holy Sanctuaries Ancient and Modern. Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1912
Young Men’s and Young Women’s Mutual Improvement Associations and Utah Pioneer Trails and Landmarks Association
40°46’9” N 111°53’23”W
Transcript of marker:
No 50 June 9, 1935 The Bee-Hive House Erected about 1852 by President Brigham Young as the official residence of the President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and occupied by him from the time it was completed until his death in 1877. From 1852 to 1855 it also served as the executive mansion of Governor Brigham Young of the Territory of Utah. It was also the home of Presidents Lorenzo Snow (1898-1901) and Joseph F. Smith (1901-1918), both of whom died here. The bee-hive is the state emblem signifying industry.
House was built in 1854 as the primary residence of Brigham Young as the first
territorial governor of Utah and President of the Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints. It is located in the heart of downtown Salt Lake City at the
intersection of State Street and South Temple (during the time of the home’s
construction it was called Brigham Street). It is a two-story building with cement
coating, large wrap-around porches, and topped with a large gilded beehive
which inspired its official name: the Beehive House.
architect of the Beehive House was Truman Osborn Angell. He was the LDS church’s
resident architect and designed many of the prominent buildings in Utah
Territory. His projects included but are not limited to the Salt Lake and St.
George Temples; The Council House; the Social Hall; the Old Tabernacle; several
meeting houses; the Utah Territorial Statehouse located in Fillmore; Brigham
Young’s first grand residence, the White House; and the later addition to the
Beehive house, the Lion House. Angell was a finish carpenter by trade and
gained valuable experience working on various projects for The Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-Day Saints, including the Kirtland and Nauvoo temples. He was
called on a European mission and in addition to preaching the LDS gospel,
Angell was assigned to study architecture. While Angell had close relationships
with many church leaders throughout his life, the most influential was Brigham
Young who married his sister Mary Ann. He enjoyed a close relationship with
Brigham Young and looked up to him as a father figure.
The primary function
of the Beehive House was to serve as an official residence of Brigham Young in
his role as both President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
as well as the territorial governor. It
housed a small number of his family, out of town visitors, and provided a place
to entertain visiting dignitaries and celebrities. Notable visitors included President Ulysses
S. Grant, William T. Sherman, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Mark Twain, Horace Greely,
and Tom Thumb.
Brigham Young had several
residences in the Salt Lake Valley as well as throughout the Utah Territory. In 1856, two years after the Beehive House
was complete, he constructed the Lion House that served as housing for several
of his wives and children. The
Beehive House however, was home to second wife (nonplural at marriage), Mary
Ann Angell. She lived in the Beehive
house on and off until 1860 when she moved into what was referred to as the
White House (or Mansion House), a few blocks away. She tended to enjoy a more secluded life and
the hustle and bustle of the Beehive House did not suit her. Upon Mary Ann’s
relocation, Lucy Decker, Brigham’s third wife moved in with her seven children
and assumed the role of managing the home.
Near this time, Brigham deeded the Beehive House to Decker. She lived there until she sold it to John W.
Young, a son of Brigham and Mary Ann Young.
Brigham Young wore
many figurative hats. He was a business
man, provider and patriarch to twenty-seven wives (although sealed to
fifty-six, only twenty-seven were a part of his households) and fifty-seven
children, politician and religious leader. It was his style to be all of these at all
times. It was common for Brigham Young
to bring up secular matters in religious sermons and vice versa. He would preach to his children and discuss
politics with various family members.
His finances were similarly difficult to separate. Young trusted his bookkeeper to keep clear
books, but his various accounts would borrow from one another. This
resulted in a level of uncertainty about who actually owned his various
properties. For example, who was the
owner of the Beehive House? Was it Brigham Young’s family home, an official
state home, or was it church property where the president resided? The answer
was that it was all of these. Since
Brigham Young deeded it to Lucy Decker, it can be assumed he saw it as a personal
family home. This issue however did cause some disagreements after Young’s
death in 1877.
Living in the home
was a communal experience. Despite the
fact that the Beehive House served as the official residence of only a single
family, it was also considered a home of last resort for newly arriving young
people from Europe that had no family or friends to stay with. Young men were given jobs and young women, much
to Lucy’s chagrin became students of the art of domesticity. Nearly every morning Brigham Young would eat
breakfast at the Beehive House with Lucy and her children. He would then go to the office located
between the Lion and Beehive Houses. He
would eat dinner with nearly fifty family members at the Lion House in the
evenings followed by a family prayer. This tradition was faithfully observed
regardless of what was on his agenda. He
would frequently put meetings on hold and join his family.
the time Brigham Young lived there, the Beehive House also served as a form of
refuge and security from unfriendly forces.
Several times a flag was raised above the Beehive on top of the house,
hundreds of men would come and surround the house to protect Brother
Brigham. To further protect the
residential compound, a nine-foot cobblestone wall was built. In addition to protecting his family, it
provided work for the aforementioned young men arriving from abroad.
In 1888, John W. Young purchased the property from Lucy Decker. During the period of his ownership the home underwent major renovations and nearly doubled in size. In 1893, Young lost the home to pay off debts incurred in a lawsuit. The home was auctioned off and purchased by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It then served as the official residence of the President of the Church. In 1900, LDS President Lorenzo Snow moved into the Beehive House and lived there until his death. His successor Joseph F. Smith lived there until is death in 1918. Heber J. Grant, Smith’s successor, chose not to reside in the Beehive House. The home remained vacant for a couple of years and underwent some minor renovations.
following trends set in other cities, the Church decided to transform the
Beehive House into a boarding home of sorts for women working or attending
school in the city. Most young women living in the Beehive House either worked
at the Church Office Building or attended LDS University. This use continued
into the late 1950s.
In 1959, the
Church decided to restore the Beehive House to what it was like in its original
form. A group was created, mostly comprised of Brigham Young’s descendants, to
discover the original structure, assemble original furniture and furnishing and
design a layout using a variety of written descriptions. In 1970, The Beehive
House became a part of the National Register of Historic Places. Since that time, it has been open to the
public for tours.
 Leonard J. Arrington, Brigham Young: American Moses. (Chicago, Illinois: University of
Illinois Press, 1985), 169.
Arrington, Brigham Young: American Moses,
 Paul L.
Anderson, “Truman O. Angell” Architect and Saint,” Supporting Saints: Life
Stories of Nineteenth-Century Mormons (Provo, UT: Religious Studies
Center, Brigham Young University, 1985), 133–73.
J. Arrington and Ronald K. Esplin, “Building a Commonwealth: The Secular
Leadership of Brigham Young,” Utah
Historical Quarterly 45, no. 3 (1977): 216-232; Arrington, Brigham Young: American Moses, 178-182.
Arrington, Brigham Young: American Moses,
 Arrington, Brigham Young: American Moses, 329; John G. Turner, Brigham Young: Pioneer Prophet, 236.
Placed by: Murray Chapter of the Utah
Sons of the Pioneers
GPS Coordinates: 40°39’25” N 111°52’36” W
Historical Marker Text:
Gold, silver, copper, lead and
zinc were found at Alta, Park City and Tintic in the years 1834 to 1869. Since no smelting was done in
the state or the surrounding area, smelters had to be built. Billy Moran built
the first smelter at 5189 South State Street on American Hill in 1869. The
Woodhall Brothers built the first furnace on State Street by Big Cottonwood
Creek June 1870. In 1871 the Germania Refinery & Wasatch Smelter were
erected west of State Street on opposite sides of Little Cottonwood Creek. The
Hanauer Smelter was built in 1872. The Horn Silver Smelter at 200 West 4800
South and the Highland Boy Plant 800 West Bullion came on stream 1880-1886.
American Smelting and Refining Company took over the Germania Plant operations
and later built a plant at 5200 South State St. which began operations in 1902.
Smelting and ore refining grew
from 0 tons to thousands of tons of ore per day. The need for smelting
eventually decreased and in November 1950, the great smelting operation at
Murray faded into History. Smelting in Murray had directly employed 10,000
people and indirectly thousands more, many of these people were pioneers who
settled in the Murray community prior to the coming of the railroad.
The smelting industry
developed in Murray, Utah, to extract metals from the ores produced by the
mines of the Utah Territory. The arrival of the railroad in Utah greatly
facilitated the development of smelting in Murray, which enabled miners to ship
ore from mines such as Bingham Canyon and Camp Floyd to smelters in Murray. After
the ore had been smelted into bars of metal, the smelters could ship the
finished bars out on the Transcontinental Railroad. In the 1870’s and 1880’s,
industrialists built several smelters in Murray, including the American Hill,
Woodhull Brothers, Germania, Wasatch, Franklyn, and the Hanauer smelters. Many of these smelters were very
unprofitable in the early years. In a report to the federal government, Rossiter W. Raymond, commenting on the smelters
in Murray, wrote, “fortunes were there lost in slags, dust, and matte.”
However, technological improvements were soon able to increase the efficiency
and profitability of the smelters.
and Refining Company (ASARCO) bought many of Murray’s smelters as part of its
efforts to consolidate the smelting industry in Murray. ASARCO built its own smelter in
Murray in 1902, which became the largest and most modern lead smelter in the
State of Utah and became a major landmark of the city of Murray.The ASARCO Smelter could handle
1200 tons of ore per day through its eight blast furnaces and employed nearly
one thousand five hundred people.
The ASARCO smelter attracted many immigrant workers from Southern and Eastern Europe to Murray. Many of these immigrant workers lived in slum-like dwellings near the railroads and around the smelter. Most of these homes lacked running water, and indoor toilets. ASARCO tried to alleviate this housing problem in 1911 by building houses for some workers, and some Greek immigrants built boarding houses for the many workers employed at the smelters. Smelter workers in Murray unionized in 1900 as part of the Western Federation of Miners and went on strike three times, in 1900, 1909 and 1912. The 1912 strike in particular wracked the city with intense violence as some rogue strikers attempted to dynamite the smelter and assassinate one of their supervisors. These strikes generally failed to win the workers’ demands, and after the 1912 strike, the Murray local of the Western Federation of Miners disbanded.
also made an environmental impact on the valley. In the early twentieth
century, critics of the smelters, mainly farmers, complained that pollution
from the smelters was damaging their crops. In October 1904, farmers met in
Murray to decide whether to take legal action against the smelters. One local
farmer named George Gardner stated, “If we do not fight the smelters, they will
impoverish us and kill us off. This valley will be desolated if the smelter
smoke is not stopped. I believe we should go into court and fight them to the
last ditch.” The farmers won several court
cases against the smelters which resulted in the closure of the Bingham
Consolidated Smelter in 1907 and the Highland Boy smelter in 1908, but the
ASARCO smelter was able to continue operations after paying a $60,000 fine. 
From 1902 to
1931 the ASARCO smelter in Murray operated at near peak capacity, but as the
Bingham, Park City, and Tintic mines began to run out of ore, the smelter in Murray
declined with them. In 1931 the smelter shut down for seven months as a result
of a shortage of ore. During the Great Depression, the smelter experienced many
more temporary shutdowns. Production picked up during World War Two, but in
1949, ASARCO announced the impending closure of the smelter, which was closed completely
by November 1950. The giant smokestacks of the
smelter continued to stand in Murray for another half century. After voters
rejected a $3.4 million bond to preserve the stacks in 1998, the city of Murray
approved the demolition of the smokestacks of the smelter in August 2000. The site of the old ASARCO
smelter is now occupied by Intermountain Healthcare’s Intermountain Medical
 Brian P. Winterowd, “Murray Smelters,” in The History of
Murray City, Utah, ed. Edna Mae Wilkinson (Murray, Utah: Murray City Corporation,
Thomas G. Alexander, “Generating Wealth from the Earth 1847-2000,” in From the Ground Up: The History of Mining in
Utah, ed. Colleen Whitley (Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press, 2006),
 David L. Schirer, The
Cultural Dynamics of Urbanization: Murray City, Utah, 1897-1919 (Salt Lake
City, Utah: University of Utah, 1991), 81-84.